This extends exterior and terminal ballistics into the field of what the firearm and ammunition can actually do. This is necessary not only for training but also for improvement in firearms and unit organization, for shooting incident scene reconstruction and for explaining scenes to a jury. This area of expertise had application in the evaluation of the Dean case, and the Ragland case.
As an expert in this area, LTC Alphin got an interesting compliment. Alphin created procedures and crew training which tripled the effective usable range of the 105mm tank gun on the M-60 tank (we cannot discuss specifics other than this became common in US tank divisions stationed in Germany, facing the Soviets). Later, LTC Alphin was the Chief of the Armor Test Division of the Armor Engineer Board. At a classified briefing, a briefer mentioned putting a face to Alphin’s name. When queried, the briefer replied “We see your name a lot. The guys on the other side know who you are.”