This discipline concerns that which occurs from the instant of projectile muzzle exit until the projectile touches the target. This also includes the muzzle ejecta, which is the remains of the combusted propellant powder and the microscopic bits debrided from the projectile. This is necessary for distance from muzzle to target and for helping with orientation of firearm to target at the moment of the shot. This definition also includes stability of the projectile in free flight, deceleration of the projectile, and all else contained within the definition.
These skills combine with such things as the Griess Test and the Sodium Rhodizonate Test. These tests, among others, can be used for determination of distance from muzzle to target at the moment of discharge, and for determination of the orientation of the firearm to the target. As an Exterior Ballistician, LTC Alphin has used these skills to solve many complex shooting incident scene issues, such as the Cobb v. Burke civil suit over an estate, and the innocence of a wrongly accused man in the Coca Cola Handler case.